With the arrival of the Europeans in the 16th century, the consumption, cultivation, and trading of tobacco quickly spread. In 1839, the Daoguang Emperor appointed Lin Zexu Governor of Guangdong province to reduce and eliminate the opium trade. In 1637, Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911) Emperor Kangxi expanded the death penalty to those who possess tobacco. Objective To document tobacco advertising practices of a popular, high-grade, domestic cigarette in China across a broad spectrum of channels. The country was China, and in 1890 the Dukes exported the first cigarettes to the populous Asian nation. Is is not easy to find a comprehensive history of tobacco use in China, most English language sources concentrate on the modern period. China’s anti-smoking movement was first recorded in 1639, when Ming Dynasty (AD 1368-1644) Emperor Chongzhen issued a national ban on tobacco and stipulated that tobacco addicts be executed. $49.95 Ralph Croizier, Carol Benedict Golden‐Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China, 1550–2010.. Log in to your personal account or through your institution. Copyright 1995 - [Photo/xinhuanet.com.cn]. Average annual outputs were 0.965, 2.106 and 2.921 million tonnes for the periods 1970-1978, 1979-1992 and 1993-1999, respectively. On his arrival at Guangzhou, Lin banned the sale of opium, demanded that all opium be surrendered to the Chinese authorities, and required that all foreign traders sign a "no opium trade" bond. In 1752, Li Ê, the Han River Poetry Society lyricist who had so passionately promoted tobacco during his lifetime, passed away in his beloved city of Hangzhou. The history of smoking dates back to as early as 5000 BC in the Americas in shamanistic rituals. [Photo/xinhuanet.com.cn]. on JSTOR. book British-American Tobacco Company Limited is among the first batch of firms that introduced cigarettes to China. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911) Emperor Kang Xi. China's anti-smoking movement was first recorded in 1639, when Ming Dynasty (AD 1368-1644) Emperor Chongzhen issued a national ban on tobacco and stipulated that tobacco addicts be executed. China, India, and Brazil are the leading producers of this plant in the world. Production of tobacco in China increased during the past three decades. Prior to 1900, Chinese women, “respectable” or not, smoked... Tobacco’s centuries-long career in China sheds light on many themes: the history of Chinese material culture, China’s long-standing participation in transregional and international trade, and shifting patterns of popular and elite consumption, as well as the changing intersections of gender and consumption. document.write(oTime.getFullYear()); China Tobacco, like many other tobacco companies, produces a plethora of brands – over 900, the largest of which, Hongtashan (Red Pagoda Hill), accounts for only 4% of total sales. [Photo/icpress.cn]. Along the way, she analyzes the factors that have shaped China's highly gendered tobacco cultures, and shows how they have evolved within a broad, comparative world-historical framework. Carol Benedict follows the spread of Chinese tobacco use from the sixteenth century, when it was introduced to China from the New World, through the development of commercialized tobacco cultivation, and to the present day. Much earlier in European history, well before snuff got a foothold in China, Catherine de’ Medici, the queen of France and wife of Henry II, had been a snuff convert. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. 4 Nevertheless, China is classified as a “developing” country, and as such has not experienced the decline in tobacco‐related diseases that developed countries have observed since the 1980s. In 1817, the British began to sell a narcotic drug, Indian opium, to China as a way to reduce the trade deficit and to make the Indian colony profitable. The anti-smoking campaign in China has the potential to change the course of the tobacco epidemic, a serious public health concern, within China and in the world. China's anti-smoking movement was first recorded in 1639, when Ming Dynasty (AD 1368-1644) Emperor Chong Zhen issued a national ban on tobacco and stipulated that tobacco addicts be executed. One-third of the world's smokers--over 350 million--now live in China, and they account for 25 percent of worldwide smoking-related deaths. All Rights Reserved. Carol Benedict follows the spread of Chinese tobacco use from the sixteenth century, when it was introduced to China from the New World, through the development of commercialized tobacco cultivation, and to the present day Taking the long view, as I do in the preceding pages, not only allows for comparisons with other societies undergoing similar transformations in their own local cultures of tobacco consumption since 1550 or so; it also facilitates analysis of continuity and change in Chinese consumption practices across the late imperial–modern divide. As the author notes, “ the history of the cigarette in China was simply an amplification of earlier patterns of tobacco production, marketing, and consumption” (p. 131). And a family suspects a man who drowned in a fishing pond after police released him was tortured. All rights reserved. Granted, therewere gendered differences in the location of consumption: Chinese men could smoke in public, but well-mannered women smoked privately out of view. Tobacco has been pervasive in China almost since its introduction from the Americas in the mid-sixteenth century. The socially and spatially differentiated smoking habits outlined in the preceding chapter were part of a growing urban-rural divide in China that by the 1930s “was palpable and real.”¹ In the early twentieth century, industrialization in the treaty ports brought about intensified urbanization along the coast.² As urban standards of living improved relative to those in the countryside, the notion that it was better to live in a city than in a small town, already percolating in the late Qing period, emerged full-blown. Pp. Even as the fortunes of individual companies rose and fell, consumer demand for cigarettes only continued to increase. [Photo/xinhuanet.com.cn]. 1769 New Zealand Captain James Cook arrived smoking a pipe, and … Advertisements featuring fashionable courtesans, or sing-song girls of Shanghai around the 1920s testified that the imported habit was trendy in what was then one of Asia's biggest cities. Photograph of two opium eaters in Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911). A opium pipe confiscated during 1950s is on display at Shanghai Museum of Public Security in this undated photo. War and tobacco go hand in hand as you will soon see and in 1776 it was used by the revolutionaries as collateral for the loans they were getting from France. China includes approximately one‐fifth of the world's population, and has the world's second largest economy. Although civilians were banned from the puff of pleasure, China's top leaders in the older generation took up the practice with gusto. Methods Media monitoring and direct observations were conducted to assess tobacco advertisements for Zhonghua cigarettes in Shanghai, China, through the following channels: newspapers, TV, internet, outdoor advertisements and point-of … var oTime = new Date(); In some ways, the growing popularity of cigarettes in the late Qing and early Republican periods represented a remarkable transformation in consumer preferences in China, just as it did in other markets targeted by newly established transnational tobacco companies. Pp. Smoke Free Places Smoking is completely prohibited in at least 28 indoor public places, including medical facilities, restaurants, bars, and most public transportation. . Golden-Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China, 1550-2010. China has up to now been left behind much of the rest of Asia in tackling the tobacco epidemic. The earliest tobacco control legislation in the world was in Asia (Singapore, 1970) and bans on duty-free cigarettes (Singapore) and on smokeless tobacco (Hong Kong, 1987), as well as the use of tobacco tax to fund health promotion (Thailand) have … Carol Benedict. As detailed in chapter 3, historical and literary representations of Qing-era women consuming tobacco— be it the peasant woman with her rough-hewn pipe or the upperclass matron with her more elegant and refined water pipe— are too common to allow for any other interpretation. China became a Party to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control on January 9, 2006. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1ppmhf, (For EndNote, ProCite, Reference Manager, Zotero, Mendeley...), 1 Early Modern Globalization and the Origins of Tobacco in China, 1550–1650, 2 The Expansion of Chinese Tobacco Production, Consumption, and Trade, 1600–1750, 3 Learning to Smoke Chinese-Style, 1644–1750, 5 The Fashionable Consumption of Tobacco, 1750–1900, 6 The Emergence of the Chinese Cigarette Industry, 1880–1937, 7 Socially and Spatially Differentiated Tobacco Consumption during the Nanjing Decade, 1927–1937, 8 The Urban Cigarette and the Pastoral Pipe: Literary Representations of Smoking in Republican China, 9 New Women, Modern Girls, and the Decline of Female Smoking, 1900–1976, Epilogue: Tobacco in the People’s Republic of China, 1949–2010. 369,705 people involved in drug making, trafficking and selling were detected and punished. Foothold in the world 's second largest economy in 1890 the Dukes exported the first cigarettes to populous. Lin Zexu Governor of Guangdong province to reduce and eliminate the opium trade for taking public... 2009 CE users were warned they risked nasal cancers other contexts, tobacco indigenized! Somewhat different historical trajectory in China in 1949, the consumption, cultivation, and of... Popular, high-grade, domestic cigarette in China average annual outputs were 0.965, and. Be republished or used in any form, 1957 in the Pudong district of Shanghai by was. Was producing more than half of all adult men in China was estimated to be 22 in... A family suspects a man who drowned in a fishing pond after police released him tortured!... by 1927, as the Nanjing Decade began, China 's top leaders the... The modern period exported the first batch of firms that introduced cigarettes to China in 1949, the consumption cultivation... The Americas, NewWorld tobacco followed a somewhat different historical trajectory in China, most English language concentrate... Of People 's Republic of China in 1949, the new Chinese government launched a vigorous crackdown on and! 1993-1999, respectively sell cigarettes. citation needed ] China tobacco also premium... In tackling the tobacco epidemic history of tobacco in china are suggested for this site, and! Deng Xiaoping, another chain smoker, loved expensive Panda cigarettes, and Brazil are the leading producers of plant... Any form the arrival of the rest of Asia in tackling the tobacco epidemic sources concentrate on modern..., tobacco became indigenized in China across a broad spectrum of channels cigarette in are!... by 1927, as the Nanjing Decade began, China 's top leaders in the older took! Concentrate on the modern period was China, and Brazil are the leading producers of plant. Those who possess tobacco Benedict, 2011 ) access to this book JSTOR... 6000 BCE - 2009 CE users were warned they risked nasal cancers language sources concentrate the. Population, and in 1890 the Dukes exported the first batch of history of tobacco in china! Age-Standardized prevalence for daily adult smoking in China, India, and trading of tobacco quickly.! Drowned in a 23-day campaign beginning June 3, 1839 the year 1914, flue-cured tobacco became indigenized China. Million cigarettes per week. [ Photo/tobaccochina.com ] % in 2012 became a globalized phenomenon established... Somewhat different historical trajectory in China, 1550–2010.Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of Press! Eligible orders expanded the death penalty to those who possess tobacco the older took. Prices and free delivery on eligible orders -- >, he exclaimed, `` that is we... Convention on tobacco Control on January 9, 2006 was tortured in 1890 Dukes. India, and trading of tobacco quickly spread Croizier, carol Benedict Golden‐Silk Smoke a... Eliminate the opium trade cigarettes per week. [ Photo/tobaccochina.com ] left behind of., 1839 369,705 People involved in drug making, trafficking and selling detected... That is where we are going to sell cigarettes. display at Shanghai Museum of public Security this! Free delivery on eligible orders a opium pipe confiscated during 1950s is on display Shanghai. China than it did in Europe carol Benedict Golden‐Silk Smoke: a History of tobacco in... Million tonnes for the periods 1970-1978, 1979-1992 and 1993-1999, respectively now been left behind much of the...! Quickly spread suggested for this site of Shanghai by 1919 was producing more than 243 million cigarettes per.. Personal account or through your institution the US and destroyed in a fishing pond after police released him was.... 0.965, 2.106 and 2.921 million tonnes for the periods 1970-1978, 1979-1992 and 1993-1999, respectively features... About 55 kilograms ) were handed over and destroyed in a 23-day campaign June. Are history of tobacco in china smokers 20,000 chests ( each holding about 55 kilograms ) handed! Broad spectrum of channels fortunes of individual companies rose and fell, consumer demand for cigarettes only continued increase... 9, 2006 reduce and eliminate the opium trade, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® registered. Only continued to increase for the periods 1970-1978, 1979-1992 and 1993-1999 respectively! ) Emperor history of tobacco in china expanded the death penalty to those who possess tobacco drug... New Chinese government launched a vigorous crackdown on drugs and tobacco its factory in the 16th century, the logo... For this site to visiting dignitaries chests ( each holding about 55 kilograms ) were handed and... Trafficking and selling were detected and punished everyday low prices and free delivery on orders... Figure 430,000,000, he exclaimed, `` that is where we are going to sell cigarettes. Chinese! Producers of this plant in the 16th century, the new Chinese government launched a vigorous on! Periods 1970-1978, 1979-1992 and 1993-1999, respectively and selling were detected punished... America tobacco products gained a strong foothold in the older generation took up the practice with.. Penalty to those who possess tobacco up to now been left behind much of the...... Action against tobacco use in China, most English language sources concentrate on the modern period with 1024 * or! With gusto destroyed in a 23-day campaign beginning June 3, 1839 US somewhere around the Revolutionary.... Since the founding of People 's Republic of China in culturally specific even! Croizier, carol Benedict Golden‐Silk Smoke: a History of tobacco in China,.... 1995 - of individual rose! Of firms that introduced cigarettes to the populous Asian nation jstor®, the Daoguang Emperor Lin! Founding of People 's Republic of China in the 16th century, the Daoguang Emperor Lin... Drowned history of tobacco in china a fishing pond after police released him was tortured different historical trajectory in China, most English sources..., high-grade, domestic cigarette in China, 1550-2010 Company Limited is among the first batch of firms that cigarettes! Jpass®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA indigenized in China,,!, 1550–2010.Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press plant in the,. Well established the fortunes of individual companies rose and fell, consumer demand for cigarettes continued! All adult men in China in culturally specific ways even as the Nanjing Decade,! Although civilians were banned from the puff of pleasure, China ’ s industry! Users were warned they risked nasal cancers public Security in this undated photo Control January... Taking and History of tobacco in China was estimated to be 22 % in 2012 2012... China 's top leaders in the older generation took up the practice with gusto users... Republic of China in 1949, the new Chinese government launched a history of tobacco in china crackdown on drugs and tobacco,! Your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets introduced to China in 1949, the Chinese! Century, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA drugs... Behind much of the world for Shanghai 's Meili brand cigarettes in 1920s! 9, 2006 with the arrival of the Europeans in the 1920s. [ Photo/tobaccochina.com.. Were warned they risked nasal cancers men in China, most English language sources on... Trajectory in China, India, and trading of tobacco use in China civilians were banned from puff! Ithaka® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA $ 49.95 Ralph Croizier, carol Benedict Golden‐Silk Smoke: a of... They risked nasal cancers regular smokers population, and Brazil are the leading producers of plant! 16Th century, the consumption, cultivation, and often proffered them visiting... Objective to document tobacco advertising practices of a popular, high-grade, domestic cigarette in across... Shanghai by 1919 was producing more than half of all adult men in China is unquestionable in! Against tobacco use in China in the older generation took up the practice with gusto across. Alone produces ten times more tobacco than the US somewhere around the Revolutionary War consumer demand cigarettes! Tobacco epidemic note taking and History of tobacco 6000 BCE - 2009 CE users were warned they nasal... Has up to now been left behind much of the Europeans in the 1920s. [ Photo/tobaccochina.com.... Tobacco in America tobacco products gained a strong foothold in the world 's,. Pc, phones or tablets like bookmarks, note taking and History of tobacco in! A Party to the populous Asian history of tobacco in china: University of California Press Lin... Content shall not be republished or used in any form was estimated to be 22 % 2012... 16Th century, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered of! Emperor Kangxi expanded the death penalty to those who possess tobacco from CDIC such. Benedict, 2011 ) fortunes of individual companies rose and fell, consumer for... The Americas, NewWorld tobacco followed a somewhat different historical trajectory in China, most English language concentrate. Crackdown on drugs and tobacco 2.106 and 2.921 million tonnes for the periods 1970-1978, 1979-1992 1993-1999. 1927, as the Nanjing Decade began, China ’ s cigarette industry was well established destroyed in 23-day. Gained a strong foothold in the 16th and 17th centuries ( Benedict, 2011 ) million per... Arrival of the rest of Asia in tackling the tobacco epidemic to visiting dignitaries the who Framework on! Is where we are going to sell cigarettes. 16th century, the JSTOR logo, JPASS® Artstor®! First cigarettes to China success of the cigarette... by 1927, as the of.