(2013), may just help answer that. The techniques include elaborative interrogation, self-explanation, summarization, highlighting (or underlining), the keyword mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, rereading, practice testing, distributed practice, and interleaved practice. Startup Life Science Says This Is the Most Effective Way to Learn (but You Weren't Taught It in School) This is the best way to study, research shows, but most schools don't teach it. J Dunlosky, C Hertzog Psychology and aging 13 4, This study guide provides a summary of the findings of a meta study which looked at the effectiveness of different learning techniques. For this technique, educators ask students to explain why a fact or concept is true. Learning techniques Summary of Dunlosky et al (2013) review of revision and learning techniques Learning Techniques.pdf — PDF document, 140 kB (144376 bytes) The techniques include elaborative interrogation, self-explanation, summarization, highlighting (or underlining), the keyword mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, rereading, practice testing, distributed practice, and interleaved practice. Dunlosky et al found several studies where students who generated explanations for facts showed improved learning and memory. %PDF-1.3 Dunlosky’s Strategies to boost learning. In some research, learners are presented with to-be-learned material for initial study followed either by a practice test or no practice test. In 2013, Prof John Dunlosky reviewed dozens of academic papers and rated commonly used learning strategies from the least to the most evidence-based. However, multiple research studies have found that many university students are commonly unaware of, and seldom use, effective learning techniques. Prof John Dunlosky from Kent State University thoroughly investigated 10 commonly used learning strategies and ranked them from the least to the most effective ones according to cognitive sciences. By Megan Sumeracki. Does Dr. Dunlosky plan to recruit a doctoral student for the next incoming class? Effects of Repetition on Recall and Note-Taking: Strategies for Learning from Lectures. Imagery for text 9. Dunlosky et al. Although these techniques are not the panacea for all the learning hurdles that students must overcome, they do offer an easy and low-cost solution to boosting student achievement in many classes. Some study techniques accelerate learning, whereas others are just a waste of time —but which ones are which? Toward meeting this challenge, we explored the efficacy of 10 learning techniques (listed in Table 1) that students could use to improve their success across a wide variety of content domains. The authors found that highlighting tended to work better for students who were more adept at identifying the crucial to-be-remembered aspects of a text. Several different methods have been used to reveal test-enhanced learning. Techniques for which Research Shows Moderate Utility. Examens : pour bien réviser, testez-vous ! � HOW WE LEARN. 1 The learning techniques we consider here were chosen on the basis of the following criteria. Dunlosky et al. Summarising might also form the first stage of a learning process, with other techniques such as self-testing and self-explanation used subsequently for review purposes. Some study techniques accelerate learning, whereas others are just a waste of time—but which ones are which? The techniques include elaborative interrogation, self-explanation, summarization, highlighting (or underlining), the keyword mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, rereading, practice testing, distributed practice, and interleaved practice. John Dunlosky's 170 research works with 11,340 citations and 38,605 reads, including: The influence of making judgments of learning on memory performance: Positive, negative, or both? NCER 2007-2004. A straightforward method of using this study strategy is to present students with a prompt to come up with ’why’ questions about the content, which is beneficial for learning (Davey & McBride, 1986). An unprecedented review maps out the best pathways to knowledge BY JOHN DUNLOSKY, KATHERINE A. RAWSON, ELIZABETH J. MARSH, MITCHELL J. NATHAN AND DANIEL T. WILLINGHAM ILLUSTRATIONS BY CELIA JOHNSON Mind.ScientificAmerican.com It is beneficial for learning in general as well as transfer (i.e., the application of knowledge to new problems) (Rittle-Johnson, 2006) (Dunlosky et al., 2013). 1,2 In the following section (and the linked pages below) we discuss important do’s and don’ts of successful learning, plus introduce several of the most promising and effective evidence-based learning methods. John Dunlosky's 170 research works with 11,340 citations and 38,605 reads, including: The influence of making judgments of learning on memory performance: Positive, negative, or both? Summarising might also form the first stage of a learning process, with other techniques such as self-testing and self-explanation used subsequently for review purposes. Although these techniques are not the panacea for all the learning hurdles that students must overcome, they do offer an easy and low-cost solution to boosting student achievement in many classes. In some research, learners are presented with to-be-learned material for initial study followed either by a practice test or no practice test. You are currently offline. 10. Improving students’ learning with effective learning techniques: Promising directions from cognitive and educational psychology J Dunlosky, KA Rawson, EJ Marsh, MJ Nathan, DT Willingham Psychological Science in the Public Interest 14 (1), 4-58 , 2013 Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K., Marsh, E., Nathan, M., & Willingham, D. (2013). In this monograph, the researchers discuss 10 learning techniques in detail and offer recommendations about their relative utility. Practice testing: self-testing or taking practice tests on to-be-learned material. Generative Learning: Which Strategies for What Age? Startup Life Science Says This Is the Most Effective Way to Learn (but You Weren't Taught It in School) This is the best way to study, research shows, but most schools don't teach it. Distributed practice: implementing a schedule of practice that spreads out study activities over time. Computer-supported example-based learning: When instructional explanations reduce self-explanations, Blog posts, news articles and tweet counts and IDs sourced by, Psychological Science in the Public Interest, View 6 excerpts, cites results, background and methods, MedEdPORTAL : the journal of teaching and learning resources, View 2 excerpts, references background and methods, By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our, The Interleaving Method: How to Efficiently Pick Up New Skills Quickly, How to Conquer Test Anxiety and Subdue Exam Panic Attacks. Knowing how to manage one's own learning has become increasingly important in recent years, as both the need and the opportunities for individuals to learn on their own outside of formal classroom settings have grown. One potential reason for the disconnect between research on the efficacy of learning techniques and their use in educational practice is that because so many techniques are available, it would be challenging for educators to sift through the relevant research to decide which ones show promise of efficacy and could feasibly be implemented by students (Pressley, Goodchild, Fleet, … Semantic Scholar profile for J. Dunlosky, with 857 highly influential citations and 224 scientific research papers. 2. Improving Students' Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology John Dunlosky, Katherine A. Rawson, Elizabeth J. Marsh, Mitchell J. Nathan and Daniel T. Willingham Despite the popular - ity of such strategies, research in cognitive and educational psychology suggests that they may consume considerable time without leading to durable learning (e.g., Dunlosky, Rawson, Marsh, Nathan, & Willingham, 2013). However, they have been rated according to high, medium and low utility according to whether or not they have been shown to improve student performance across many types of materials, learning conditions, student characteristic and … 2012; Rawson and Dunlosky 2011; Roediger and Butler 2011). Dunlosky et al. Test-Enhanced Learning in a Middle School Science Classroom: The Effects of Quiz Frequency and Placement. Practice Tests, Spaced Practice, and Successive Relearning: Tips for Classroom Use and for Guiding Students’ Learning John Dunlosky and Katherine A. Rawson Kent State University Several techniques have been identified that can help students of all ages and abilities learn, understand, and retain materials across a wide variety of classes. An unprecedented review maps out the best pathways to knowledge. SO"�Z1N��">͊q� �be�9/$o:��������h�vMYL#8��p�.QzQ��NU�23*/KeȖ6�_*C, �ل_o���x����*�3����]���e�gG�����.�'?�OŦ��5�^7���ʮ��O�Bqa~���=[�:h`�[8���Y�5̔w�#`�����2Ȟ�`{q��s�+�@ff���Ty2N'. John Dunlosky – Google Scholar Citations. �� �M�t:9����!�+�M����.�a�w.� Dr. John Dunlosky is a Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychological Sciences, where he has taught since , … Dunlosky’s Strategies to boost learning. Knowing Activities and Techniques that Enhance Storage and Retrieval Beyond achieving a general understanding of the storage and retrieval processes that char- acterize human learning and memory, a truly effective learner needs to engage in activities thatfosterstorageofnewinformationandsub- sequent access to that information. A comprehensive study called “Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques” by Dunlosky et al. %��������� Compared to the “highly effective” techniques, these are more difficult to apply in different environments or with different students, and have less evidence to support their role in improving learning. !d�ѭwD�L�a�����]b`��d�vʭ�]�Ԯ o���70|��>}A��f�ul����@Ƭh{ĩ�ő�2 U�ι�o��~�\�|_�Ȍ1��c�wMլ��X�9��5 ��~X Here's what they found. From the least to the most effective, they are: 10. States and colleagues carried out a meta study evaluating ten popular learning techniques (Dunlosky et al., 2013). Prof John Dunlosky from Kent State University thoroughly investigated 10 commonly used learning strategies and ranked them from the least to the most effective ones according to cognitive sciences. BY JOHN DUNLOSKY, KATHERINE A. RAWSON, ELIZABETH J. MARSH, MITCHELL J. NATHAN AND DANIEL T. WILLINGHAM. Dunlosky suggests that the interleaved approach may be most useful when it comes to learning that involves problem solving – like, for example, mathematics. The report, “Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology,” is published in the January 2013 issue of Psychological Science in the Public Interest and is authored by John Dunlosky and Katherine A. Rawson of Kent State University, Elizabeth J. Marsh of Duke University, Mitchell J. Nathan of the University of Wisconsin … Improving educational outcomes will require efforts on many fronts, but a central premise of this monograph is that one part of a solution involves helping students to better regulate their learning through the use of effective learning techniques. rated the following three techniques as moderately effective. Both spaced-out learning, or distributed practice, and practice tests were rated as having “high utility” by the authors. Imagery for text. HOW WE LEARN. All techniques described below are useful, even “low utility” ones. Another factor to consider in the choice of a learning technique is the nature of the to-be-remembered material. 3. Several techniques have been identified that can help students of all ages and abilities learn, understand, and retain materials across a wide variety of classes. J Dunlosky, C Hertzog Psychology and aging 13 4, This study guide provides a summary of the findings of a meta study which looked at the effectiveness of different learning techniques. His research focuses on self-regulated learning . Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning. Imagery for text 9. However, the high utility effects work across a wide variety of all the materials, learning conditions, student characteristics and learning tasks outlined in the introduction (p. 39). John Dunlosky is a professor of psychology and the director of experimental training at Kent State University. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Students are probably least likely to use this highly useful tool because their experience with testing is of the high-stakes, formal, summative testing variety, an experience one tends to avoid if possible. 2. 4 0 obj Also, some techniques (e.g., highlighting and rereading) were selected because students report relying heavily on them, which makes it especially important These techniques were rated as low utility … x�Zϗ����W(7潘A ~m.3ۓMvg��N;oy9И�����;�_���_�W% ��ݳ�y> ��TU_U}%�E�,�%E��(�EŢ+�G��R|���K����kH�/B�1RN��.���|ߗbY��˒0��V)OER$*�L,�������i������6V7����Om����h*���_ ���+#����_ۇr{Wv�9�e��~�W�b����R���^�q��=I�Τ�B��R1v)����G^,#�ʋ�T$A�e�R4C*~�E��莆��O�ط�џHOf���l����T�8� Interleaved practice. stream 3. The Rest The remainder of the techniques evaluated by Dunlosky and his colleagues fell into the middle ground — not useless, but not especially effective either. More than 100 years of research involving hundreds of experiments have shown the effectiveness of students taking practice tests. But some papers change the way you teach forever, and, for me, none have done that as comprehensively as Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology (Dunlosky et al, 2013). How and Why Do Students Use Learning Strategies? Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology John Dunlosky 1 , Katherine A. Rawson 1 , Elizabeth J. Marsh 2 , Mitchell J. Nathan 3 , and Daniel T. Willingham 4. Dr. John Dunlosky is a Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychological Sciences, where he has taught since , … WHAT WORKS, WHAT DOESN’T Several techniques have been identified that can help students of all ages and abilities learn, understand, and retain materials across a wide variety of classes. This technique consists of developing internal images that elaborate on the material being studied. Lernstrategien: Warum Druchlesen und Markieren schön, aber sinnlos ist, 4 science-backed ways toward better learning (Hint: drop the highlighter). cognitive psychology (for recent reviews, see Dunlosky et al. Many students are being left behind by an educational system that some people believe is in crisis. 1 (2013): 4–58. Ten benefits of testing and their applications to educational practice. Fortunately, cognitive and educational psychologists have been developing and evaluating easy-to-use learning techniques that could help students…, Applying Cognitive Science to Online Learning, Inexpensive techniques to improve education: Applying cognitive psychology to enhance educational practice. << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> My research program has focused on understanding three inter-related components of self-regulated learning: (1) monitoring of learning, (2) control of study time, … cognitive psychology (for recent reviews, see Dunlosky et al. Several different methods have been used to reveal test-enhanced learning. An unprecedented review maps out the best pathways to knowledge B Y JOHN DUNLOSKY, KATHERINE A. RAWSON, ELIZABETH J. MARSH, MITCHELL J. NATHAN AND DANIEL T. WILLINGHAM HOW WE LEARN WHAT WORKS, WHAT 2012; Rawson and Dunlosky 2011; Roediger and Butler 2011). John Dunlosky, Katherine A. Rawson, Elizabeth J. Marsh, Mitchell J. Nathan, and Daniel T. Willingham, "Improving Students' Learning with Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions from Cognitive and Educational Psychology," Psychological Science in the Public Interest 14, no. John Dunlosky is a professor of psychology and the director of experimental training at Kent State University. Imagine a student reading an introductory passage on photosynthesis: "It is a process in which a plant converts carbon dioxide and water into sugar, which is its food. A Behavioral Perspective on College Teaching, The Challenges of Classroom Strategy Instruction. J Dunlosky, C Hertzog Psychology and aging 13 4, This study guide provides a summary of the findings of a meta study which looked at the effectiveness of different learning techniques. An effective metacognitive strategy: learning by doing and explaining with a computer-based Cognitive Tutor. Some study techniques accelerate learning, whereas others are just a waste of time —but which ones are which? In order to receive a high utility rating, the technique needed to be useful in a range of conditions, for a range of Another factor to consider in the choice of a learning technique is the nature of the to-be-remembered material. (1987), students who were asked to explain a fictional man’s actions were nearly two times more likely to correctly recall the man’s actions on a final test than students who were asked … Knowing how to manage one's own learning has become increasingly important in recent years, as both the need and the opportunities for individuals to learn on their own outside of formal classroom settings have grown. Training programs to improve learning in later adulthood: We are now beginning to find out what works well and not so well when it comes to learning. Some study techniques accelerate learning, whereas others are just a waste of time—but which ones are which? Practice Testing, unsurprisingly, involves self-testing or taking practice tests. We chose some techniques (e.g., self-testing, distributed practice) because an initial survey of the literature … Learning how to learn: can embedded discussion boards help first-year students discover new learning strategies? The process gives off oxygen." John Dunlosky – Google Scholar Citations. The learning techniques chosen for the study were limited to those that were deemed easy to use and did not require advanced technology or extensive materials to be prepared by the teacher. Research Interests: My research program has focused on understanding three inter-related components of self-regulated learning: (1) monitoring of learning, (2) control of study time, and (3) the application of strategies during learning. Distributed learning significantly improves performance over massed practice when it comes to problem solving, but interleaved practice requires a learner not only to solve a problem bus also to determine what type of problem it is. 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